Friday, August 23, 2019
Nucleoside Analogue - Research Paper Example Despite the remarkable success of this method, the use of lifelong HBIg for hepatitis B prophylaxis has its limitations. Among others are the high cost, limited supply and parental administration. The patient needs to frequently visit the clinic too and requires laboratory monitoring. Another problem with HBIg is itÃ¢â¬â¢s a blood product not readily advised by physicians. If a safer non-biological alternative existed, it would have been very easy for the patients. This particular study examined 61 patients that went under donor orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The study found that the HBIg cessation a 12 months minimum after the transplant with successive administration of nucleoside and nucleotide analog agent gives an effective prophylaxis against recurring HBV infection. Despite the success of the procedure concerns still persist when applying the same procedure to patients with chronic stable renal dysfunction. One recurrence case in the study seroconverted to HBsAg whi le being administered oral antivirals (to treat renal dysfunction). Hence renal dysfunction does represent a complication in applying this procedure. Renal toxicity is still a matter of concern regarding the long-term usage of oral antiviral drugs for preventing HBV. This study didnÃ¢â¬â¢t show any change in renal functional of patients however, the focus of the study was not the renal dysfunctional, studies with larger durations and follow up should be conducted to analyze this aspect comprehensively. Moreover this study doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t cover interaction between hepatitis delta, hepatitis C and pre-transplant hepatitis B viremia, for the risk of hepatitis B breakthrough on our protocol. Hence the oral antiviral procedure should better be performed on low risk patients. Liver transplant recipients are at a great risk of acquiring hepatitis B after liver transplantation. The transplantation performed is a preventive measure against the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) related liver disease. This study by Saab et al. (2011) evaluates the effectiveness of the new hepatitis B prophylaxis, incorporating conversion from 12 months of HBIg along with lamivudine, to Ã¢â¬Ëcombination therapyÃ¢â¬â¢. This was done using oral nucleotide and nucleoside analogue. During the research (between June 2008 and May 2010) 61 liver transplant recipients in total, were converted to a combination of a nucleotide and nucleoside analog. Standard deviation (or the mean) follow-up time after conversion was recorded at 15.0 (Ã ±6.1) months. Recurring HBV befell in only two patients (3.3%) at 3.1 and 16.6 months when HBIg dosage was halted. The time incidence rate for HBV relapse after terminating the HBIg was calculated at around 2.7 cases per 100 person-years. HBV relapse was estimated at 1.7% at 1 year after terminating the HBIg. The HBIg termination 12 months minimum after the liver transplantation with succeeding Ã¢â¬Ëcombination therapyÃ¢â¬â¢ with a nucleotide and nucleoside analog, gives effective prophylaxis to fight against recurring HBV infection. The clinical associations of HBsAg findings, short of the clinical, molecular or biochemical indicators of recurring hepatitis B, require further study. One limitation of the study was it did not include a control group. All eligible patients at the center were put to dual nucleoside and
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Current Scenario Essay The only issue the company has to consider is the identification of the potential market and customers as the industry is already crowded with too many players. There are other factors which influence the expansion plans of the company which however can be mitigated with a careful planning and organizing the resources properly. With a view to assess the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities to fight against the threats an analysis of the external factors employing an External Factors Analysis Summary (EFAS) was undertaken. The analysis revealed that the company possesses adequate strengths in the areas of quality customer service at competitive rates. However the company has to face a stiff competition from other players of the industry, the competitive package deals being offered by the cable companies and VoIP services being offered by software companies. The growth can also be obstructed by the governmental regulations in the US as well as the countries in which the company proposes to expand the services as well as the inadequacies of the infrastructure the company presently having. The analysis proved that despite these issues the company possesses adequate strengths to overcome these problems in the due course. Current Scenario The current scenario with respect to WDTÃ¢â¬â¢s past performance and other corporate policies and objectives are stated below: a. Past Corporate Performance, Sales, Profits and Markets: WDT has specialized in art of providing long distance calls at discounted rates and the products include the local telephone calls, long distance calls, internet, internet telephone and providing wireless service. The company has more than 100,000 customers presently. The company presently has offices at Niles, Illinois, Dallas, Texas, New York, Lublin and Poland. b. Mission The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement as stated in their official website is: Ã¢â¬Å"World Discount TelecommunicationsÃ¢â¬â¢ mission is to satisfy communication needs of ethnic customers by striving to offer exceptional communication experience by providing services that are priced competitively, using reliable technological solutions and offering superior customer service, while creating a fun place to work and satisfaction for the stakeholders. Ã¢â¬ (WDT. com) c. Objectives The objective of the company is to expand the existing business by exploring the untapped markets both for traditional telephony service. This includes voluminous Asian markets like India and China and also the Central and South American markets which have more emerging economies presenting abundance of opportunities for business expansion. With the expertise already acquired in the area of discount telecommunicating options, the company strives to get exposure in these different geographical locations. Provision of VoIP facilities in the already established ethnic segments like East European Countries and Russia is considered as another important objective. d. Strategies Strategically instead of competing larger players in the domestic market on the VoIP segment where the competition is stiff and too many players are present, the company would opt for only the following strategic measures to achieve significant growth within a shorter period. A. Expansion of the traditional services to potential markets in the emerging economies of Asia and Central/South America and B. Expansion of VoIP services to already familiar ethnic markets and customers in East European countries and Russia. Policies The business policies of WDT are aligned to the mission and objectives. The major policy of the company is to provide superior customer service catering to ethnic customer groups. The company was formulating its business policies based on this broad policy and expanding to various ethnic markets by providing quality telecommunication services at affordable prices. With the rollout of VoIP WDT intends to extend the service to the Russian customers whom they are already serving with traditional telephone services.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Brown V. Board of Education Essay Brown v Board of Education is a historical landmark case that dismantled segregation laws and established a great milestone in the movement toward true equality. The Supreme Courts unanimously decided on Brown v. Board of Education that separate but equal is inherently unequal. Ruling that no state had the power to pass a law that deprived anyone from his or her 14th amendment rights. For my historical analysis I will use Richard KlugerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Simple JusticeÃ¢â¬ , in which he argues, Ã¢â¬Å"that the Declaration of Independence was marred by hypocrisyÃ¢â¬âall men were not equal if blackÃ¢â¬ . His book will assist me in learning the policies that lead to and surrounded this case. Using interviews I conducted, where I questioned inner city high school students of their schooling experience in comparison to my brother who attends a predominately white privileged private school, I will ultimately uncover the many inequalities that still exist today. While researching I interviewed my great-Aunt Bertha, who grew up in the state of Mississippi, she had a first-hand experience of life before Brown v Board of Education and life after the Supreme Court ruled on the case, her life was changed forever. My research will focus on not only a historical analysis of what occurred, but how far America has claimed to truly come in dealings with race relations, and the inequalities that still exist today. The American Civil War was fought from 1861 to 1865 between the United States also known as the Ã¢â¬Å"UnionÃ¢â¬ and the few southern states that announced their separation from the United States known as the Ã¢â¬Å"ConfederatesÃ¢â¬ . The war was based mainly on differing opinions on the issue of slavery. The war lasted about four years and the results yielded in the Confederacy being defeated by the Union. Upon defeating the Confederates, the Union abolished slavery. From that moment on the process of rebuilding the Union as a strong united nation began. This Union was to guarantee freedom to slaves and began the process of having former slaves obtain rights entitled to all citizens. Once the Civil War had ended, so did the policy of legal slavery. However former Confederate leaders did not intend on allowing the former slaves to have all the same rights as whites nor did they intend for former slaves to be counted equally as citizens. Just before the end of the war, congress had passed the Morrill Act of 1862. This act was to provide for federal funding of higher education. Former slave-holding states decided to find loop holes in allowing former slaves to benefit from the new federal funding as they were not ready to asked them as citizens or even human for that matter. Post-Civil War, the fourteenth amendment to the United States Constitution granted equal protection under the law to all citizens. Although the amendment was put into effect Congress knew the transition from slave to citizen with a hand full of rights would be difficult for former slaves so to help with the transition process Congress created the FreedmenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau. This program was created to assist in the integration of former slave into society as citizens. At the end of the reconstruction period in 1877 former Confederate states implemented random laws that would blatantly go against the federal law and the constitutional right granted b y the 14th amendment to all including African Americans for equal treatment under the law. Southern state believed they could somehow obey federal orders by having equality yet keeping order by having races remain separate. For many years the court at both state and federal level claimed the 14th amendment applied only to federal, not state, citizenship, therefore they had no control over how a state thought to treat or label an African American on their land. This was proven true of the court in the 1863 Civil Rights Case heard before the Supreme Court. This case was made up of five lower level court cases and made into one because they all had the same claim. In this case The Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments. After the end of Reconstruction, the federal government generally did not hear racial segregation cases instead advising the issue be left up to each individual state to handle. In understanding Brown v Board of Education one must first understand a little about Plessey v Ferguson. The issue in this case was can the states constitutionally enact legislation requiring persons of different races to use Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ segregated facilities? And the Court ruled, yes. The states can constitutionally enact legislation requiring persons of different races to use Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ segregated facilities, this coming from the highest Court of the land. The trouble with this ideology was that it is contradictory even in its simplest form. Although the Constitution required equality, the facilities and social services offered to African-Americans were almost always of lower quality than those offered to white Americans; for example, many African American schools received less public funding per student than nearby white schools. Public water fountains, which were label Ã¢â¬Å"coloredÃ¢â¬ , were always of lower quality than those labeled for Ã¢â¬Å"whitesÃ¢â¬ . Life went on lived with this flawed idea of serrate equality for many years creating an inferior class of citizens, black were at the bottom and therefore not equal. Many people have tried to challenge the Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ rule but most went unheard and those that were heard failed have a change occur. Eventually in 1954 a case did make it on the Supreme Court docket, that case was Linda Brown v. Board of Education. Brown v Board of Education asked the Supreme Court to answer the question of does the segregation of children in public schools s olely on the basis of race deprive the minority children of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment? Blacks wanted justice and wanted this question to be answered and clarified for all the nation that they too are people entitle to all the same rights as whites. Thurgood Marshall was one of leading attorney, and civil rights activists, who fought against the segregation laws and policies that were violating the rights of African Americans, especially the children. Kulger Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the African Americans were going to ask equal treatment from top to bottom; buses, buildings, teachers, teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s salaries, teaching materials. Everything the same. Anything less was patently in violation of the Fourteenth amendement, Thurgood Marshall explained. Ã¢â¬Å" (18) Thurgood Marshall was one of leading attorney, and civil rights activists, who fought against the segregation laws and policies that were violating the rights of African Americans, especially the children. Kulger Black children were denied admission to public schools attended by white children under laws requiring or permitting segregation according to the races. Linda Browns father though it to be insane that just based solely on the color of his daughters skin she would have to travel really far across train tracks to go to the black only school when they lived near by a school that happened to be labeled whites only. The National Association of the Advancement of Colored People picked up his case, making Linda Brown the poster girl for the cause; She was the embodiment of young black students that were not getting an adequate education that they are entitled to. Brown embellished the ideal look of an average, young, innocent girl, just trying to go to school like any other White child would. The NAACP hired a team of lawyers and civil rights activist to petition the court to hear out the constitutionality of this issue. The lawyers on the case complied many other cases into the same bulk because they all asked of the court the same question, which was the constitutionality of the separate but equal. The Supreme Court ultimately decided in favor of Brown and cited, Ã¢â¬Å"despite the equalization of the schools by objective factors, intangible issues foster and maintain inequality. Racial segregation in public education has a detrimental effect on minority children because it is interpreted as a sign of inferiority. The long-held doctrine that separate facilities were permissible provided they were equal was rejected. Separate but equal is inherently unequal in the context of public education.Ã¢â¬ This decision called for an end to all state maintained racial segregation. Although the legal end was called for the mentality of many remained the same some going so far as to verbally and physically torture blacks that would dare utilize the same facilities as whites. Brown v Board of Education was decided in 1954 approximately 60 years ago but the strong effects of life before the decision still live on today even in the State of New York which is known to be progressive and libe ral I find myself surround by many disparities. Within the New York Public school system for example. Although we are not literally labeled certain schools as a black school or a white schools the idea of zoning children into schools based on their address is just the new form of Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ in my eyes. I had the pleasure of interviewing a fellow political science major at The City College of New York. John Miller shared with me his experience within the New York City public school system, where he was educated until his graduation from high school or as he called it Ã¢â¬Å"aging outÃ¢â¬ of the system. John described in detail his experience of never having shared a classroom with a white person before enrolling at City College. John was born and raised in the Bedford Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, New York. Bedford Stuyvesant is widely known as the black cultural mecca of Brooklyn, similar to what Harlem is to Manhattan. He explained to me the way New York City public school system works from kindergarten through 9th grade. Children are assigned a school tha t is in close proximity to their neighborhood. If they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like the school they are assigned to, which many do not, the answer from authority figures is Ã¢â¬Å"tough luckÃ¢â¬ or simply Ã¢â¬Å"moveÃ¢â¬ . Unfortunately John was one of the students that had to stay in his underfunded school. He also told me about his best friend who was one of the lucky few that gained admission into a charter school (which seems to be the only way out of the failed Bedstuy public schools) in downtown Brooklyn. His friend was admitted into the school because his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s employer noticed what she felt was great intelligence for someone whose mother was a simple housekeeper. While he spent the day watching his mother clean her house she simply made a phone call to one of her friends who happened to be a big donor to the charter school and in just a few weeks he was being bussed to a 21st century private charter school. He was one of the lucky few to made it out. Miller is now at the University of Chicago studying biology, I hope of becoming a doctor. Most of their childhood friends from the neighborhood are either in prison most for crimes of necessity given their unfortunate circumstances. He described how another friend would frequently steal from the local grocery story to supply his family with food. Miller would like to point out that he is not trying to create excuses for the crimes committed, however he is sympathetic to their reasoning. He is also not oblivious to the fact that not all the crimes his childhood friends are being incarcerated for are crime of necessity but rather some are crimes of pure boredom. He is not sure where to place blame or on who in either circumstance. The past stories accounts for the majority of the men John knew but the women are not excluding from this group of underachievers. Most became pregnant at an extremely early age giving birth to children out of wedlock. They gave birth with the expectation that there is always Ã¢â¬Å"food stamps/welfareÃ¢â¬ I donÃ¢â¬â¢t need a jobÃ¢â¬ while others are working dead end jobs making minimum wage. In his community education is clearly not something to value and I would make the claim that it is because from kindergarten the schools in this community are underfunded and have teacher who donÃ¢â¬â¢t care working in the system. If the teachers donÃ¢â¬â¢t care neither will the students and so the cycle continues. Was this system plan and created by our white socioeconomic counter part? We were taught to believe Brown v Board of Education would change our lives forever. Once the high Court made the claim that Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ actually was impossible to accomplish and an oxymoron within itself. Mississippi was so defiant towards the Brown v. Board of Education case, schools in the state refused to integrate. Therefore the federal courts in 1969 had to modify the Mississippi Ã¢â¬Å"desegregation orderÃ¢â¬ . People still had their racist ideologies and even today 4 of the schools are Ã¢â¬Å"single-racedÃ¢â¬ , although it is legally outlawed. My aunt Bertha was a student in the Mississippi public school system in the year prior to and post Brown v. Board of education. She vividly recalls sitting with her family around a radio and hearing the Chief Justice announce the courts decision to declare Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ unconstitutional. Making separate schools for whites and black she thought would immediately become a something of the past. She admits to being very nervous yet excited about the idea of going to schools that white people would also go to. She even recalls telling her dad Ã¢â¬Å"maybe we wont have to share books anymoreÃ¢â¬ pointing to the fact that her school was so underfunded and there werenÃ¢â¬â¢t enough books to go around. Bertha says 2 years after the decision was handed down by the court she remained a student at a school on the east side of the track which were for black and the whites remained enrolled in the other school. She visits once a year now for her high school reunion and is just now starting to notice some integration almost 60 plus years later the principle proudly announced we Ã¢â¬Å"now have a white population of 2.3 percentÃ¢â¬ although she was proudly to see Brown v. Education being implemented into her hometown she still is saddened by the fact that people of color on her side of the track could potentially go through life without ever having much interaction with the other race if they so chose. This saddens her because we are now living in 2012 and our President is black however whites and some blacks still seem very uncomfortable with they idea of being together, not just in the classroom but also in all aspects of life. Ã¢â¬Å"Segregation was an unmitigated evil, and no black man anywhere in America was free of its scar so long as the Supreme Court tolerated itÃ¢â¬ (290) We are still living in a systematic world of segregation in the New York City School System in the public and private sector. Schools where most of the students are minorities get underfunded. Is this a problem of economics? Distribution? Or an ongoing internal racism that often gets ignored? BIBLIOGRAPHY Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black Americas Struggle for Equality. New York: Vintage, 2004. Print. Mississippi Schools Still Segregated Despite Court Order. Breaking News for Black America RSS. NewsOne Staff, 4 May 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. Miller, J (2012, 5 October) Personal Interview Moore, B (2012 15, October) Telephone Interview
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Importance Of Age In Sla There are many theories if age affects second language acquisition. Some authors saying that, to learn a second language when you are child is easier than to learn a second language when you are older. We can define children ages from 3 to 18 that are in school and adults or older learners from the ages of 18 and above. However the critical period hypothesis it can also play a role in the learning and also the implicit and the explicit shift hypothesis. Below will examine what authors point out. What is the difference of learning a second language in early stage or later, the benefits and the negatives. And when is easier to start learning a second language. To start with, in critical period hypothesis suggests that there is a period when language acquisition takes place naturally and effortlessly. Penfield and Roberts (1959 in Ellis, 1985:107) argued that the optimum age for language acquisition it starts the first ten years of life. Because in this time of period the brain retains plasticity but with the onset of puberty this plasticity begins to disappear. They suggest that this is a result of the lateralization of the language function in the left hemispheres of the brain, and slowly concentrated in the left hemisphere for most people. Thus, increased difficulty which learners supposedly experience as a direct result of a neurological change. According to Lenneberg (1967 in Ellis, 1985:107) to support the critical period hypothesis found that injuries to the right hemisphere caused more language problems in children than in adults. He also found that in cases of children who underwent surgery of the left hemisphere, no speech disorders resulted, whereas with adults almost total language occurred. Furthermore, Lenneberg provided evidence to show that whereas children rapidly recovered total language control after such operations, adults did not do so, but instead continued to display permanent linguistic impairment. This suggested that the neurological basis of language in children and adults was different. However, Lennebergs evidence does not demonstrate that is easier to acquire language before puberty but he assumed that language acquisition was easier to children. According to Lightbown and Spada (1999:61) most studies of the relationship between age of acquisition and second language development have focused on learn ers phonological (pronunciation) achievement. In general, these studies have concluded that older learners almost inevitably have a noticeable foreign accent. However, another interesting cognitive theory is the implicit and the explicit shift. This suggests that the age affects the decreasing in language learning capacity in SLA and it happens because of the declining role of implicit learning and memory in the language acquisition process, and at the same time increase the role of explicit learning and memory. This statement is supported by a wide agreement that learners process their late-learnt language differently than their native language, but the results of the performance are rarely the same. Paradis (2004 in Dornyei 2009:256-257) point out that a particular strength of the implicit and the explicit shift hypothesis is that they can account of the age effects in naturalistic SLA and in formal school learning: first, the dominating learning mechanism is the implicit thus the younger we are, the better we can capitalize. Second the limited amount of L2 exposure and cognitive structure input is typically favours explicit learning and learning we can benefit from this language environment more in older age when the implicit and the explicit shift is on the way and thus prepared us for utilizing explicit learning mechanisms. Although it is often assumed that the loss of the implicit learning that is forces the second language learners to rely in the explicit learning, which uses a cognitive system different from that the native language is support. Dekeyser (2000 in Dornyei, 2009:241) point out that if the Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) is constrained, however in the implicit learning mechanisms appears that there is more than just a sizable correlation. Also early age confers an absolute that there may well be no exceptions to the age effect. Between the ages of 6-7 and 16-17 , everybody loses the mental equipment that requires for the implicit induction of the abstract patterns that underlying the human language, thus the critical period deserves its name as DeKeyser mention. DeKeyser and Larson Hall (2005 in Dornyei 2009:241) point out, that this approach is also accepted by Lenneberg (1967 in Dornyei 2009:241) who had the original observation of the CPH that automatic acquisition from mere exposure to a given language seems to disappear after this age. Also many scholars agree with DeKeyser (2000 in Dornyei, 2009:242) that the qualitative disparity between adult (post Critical period) and child language acquisition shows that somewhere along the line there is bound to be break that it caused from maturational constraints. Studies have repeatedly found that age causes a gradual decline in acquiring language with an attainment curve with a sharp discontinuity at the terminus of the period. Although there is a theory the younger the better whereas Dornyei points out that language learning is easier when one is young. For example a family of immigrates to a new country for a 5 year old child will be far easier to learn a L2 proficiency than the 30 year old father, but he would be better than 60 year old grandma. I can agree with Dornyei view, as for a child it can be easier to learn the second language because of the school context, but for the father it depends from the working or the environment he will be surrounded, thus it can be more difficult for older learners. As Dorney (2009:249) explains, a young immigrant child who will start primary school in the new country at the age of 5-6, will be able to learn as often optimal conditions are provided by the school experiences. However, for an adult immigrant whose social network involve people from the same ethno linguistic group and has few native speaking colleagues at work the learning conditions are far from the ideal. It is also the same for a student that contact a L2 onetime per week in a school context. Some other authors that agree with Dornyei, is Kuhl (2008 in Dornyei, 2009:249) who states, There is no doubt that children learn languages more naturally and efficiently than adults and N.Ellis (2005 in Dornyei, 2009:249) also concludes, It is an incontrovertible fact that ultimate second language attainment is less successful in older than younger learners According to Gass and Selinker (2001:342) children are more successful second language learners than adults and there various explanations: First, there social psychological reasons why adults learn languages less easy than children. There many different versions of this hypothesis. Some suggest that adults dont want to give up the sense of identity that the accent provides them. And other suggests that adults dont want to surrender their ego in the extent that required adopting a new language, which combines with a new life-world. Second the cognitive factors are also responsible for the weakness of the adults to succeed in learning. Adults have greater cognitive abilities than children. Adopting the cognitive abilities in language learning task has less successful learning in children, which according to the hypothesis where supposed to rely a greater extent in a specific language acquisition device. Third, there are neurological changes that prevent adults to use their brain with the same way that children learn language learning tasks. This usually presented as a loss of plasticity or the flexibility in the brain. Fourth, the children are exposed to a better input for language learning thus children are provided with better data about the language. On the other hand, some other authors disagree with that point of view and point out that the older the better by state that a 5 year old student probably will occur to less progress in learning language in school context than an older learner age of 15 or 30, even 60 years old. According to Dornyei (2009:235) Anglophone children in French immersion who entered the immersion programme relatively late, around 9 to 11 years old, very quickly manage to caught up with the early immersion of students, who start he immersion programme in kindergarten or when entering the primary school. Also Dornyei (2009:250) point out that in school settings older students make better progress than their younger peers, particularly in acquiring morphosyntactic and lexical aspects of the second language and sometimes also in acquiring phonological aspects. Also Dornyei (2009:250) states that younger the better principle suggests that younger children learn better in educational settings in the sense of going further but not faster. Singleton and Ryan (2004 in Dornyei, 2009:250): Extrapolating from the naturalistic studies, one way plausibly argue that early formal instruction in an L2 is likely to yield advantages after rather longer periods of time than have so far been studied. Over the last few years two investigations took place in Spain, to examine the older the better issue. They examine three groups of Basque learners of English who attended the fifth year in primary school, the second year in secondary school and the fifth year in secondary school who had 600 hours of instruction, Cenoz (2003 in Dornyei, 2009:251) reported that the oldest group had the highest proficiency in English, followed by the intermediate group and the youngest group. The youngest learners where only better in attitudinal and motivational disposition from their older peers. The second study investigated Catalan learners of English in the Barcelona Age Factor (BAF) project and they found very similar findings. Several groups of learners (total N= 1928) with different AoA were examined three times, after 200 hours, 416 hours, and 726 hours of instruction. In the results older learners where progress faster in learning a foreign language than younger learners. Munoz (2006 in Dorny ei, 2009:251) concluded that after linger periods of time, younger starters did not outperform later starters, and the extensive span and size of this investigation makes this finding particularly robust. However, many authors point out that in formal language contexts younger learners are not better but worse. Thus, in recent initiatives they attempt to push forward the starting age of learning a foreign language as a school productive. Lightbown and Spada (2006 in Dornyei, 2009:251), conclude that older learners are possible to achieve a better use in L2 learning in limited time. When the goal is the basic communicative ability for all students in an educational system, and when the childs native language will remain the primary language, it may be more efficient to start learning a second or a foreign language teaching later. When the learners receive few hours of teaching per week, the learners who start later between 10 to 12 years old often are likely to caught up with the learners who start earlier. Some second or foreign languages programmes that start with very young learners and provide minimum of contact, usually they do not lead to much progress. On the other hand Ellis gives some facts of younger and older learners. According to Ellis (1994:491-492) adult learners have an initial advantage of learning, where rate of learning in concerned, particularly in grammar. Eventually adult learners can overtake the child learners that are exposed to L2. This is less likely to happen in instructional than in naturalistic settings because the critical amount of exposure is usually not available in the former. First, only child learners are able to acquire informal learning contexts. Long (1990 in Ellis, 1994:491-492) point out that the critical period is age 6, but Scovel point out that there is no evidence to support it and argues for a pre-puberty start. Also Singletton (1989 in Ellis, 1994:491-492) point out that children are able to acquire a native accent only if they are exposed to massive L2 learning. However, some children still do not manage to acquire a native like accent possible because they try to maintain active use of the ir L1. Adult learners may be able to acquire a native accent if they have an assistance of instruction, but more researchers have to take place to substantiate this claim. Second, children are more likely to acquire a native grammatical competence, as the critical period of grammar may be able to be later than for pronunciation, around 15 years old. But some adult learners, might achieve to acquire native levels of grammatical accuracy in speech and writing and linguistic competence. Third, children are more likely to reach higher levels of attainment in pronunciation and grammar than adults. Fourth, the process of acquiring a L2 does not really affected by the age, but the acquiring of pronunciation can be. Beside if younger learners or older learners are better, age can affect the mastery of native like learning as we saw above. Also Mark Patkowski (in Lightbown, 1999:61-62) studied the effect of age in acquisition of features of a second language, despite the accent. He pointed that even if the accent was ignored only the learners who start learning a second language before the age of 15 they could achieve full, native-like mastery of that language. Patkowski also examined the spoken English of 67 highly educated immigrants to the United States. The learners started to learn English in different ages, but all of them lived in the United States more than 5 years. Also 15 native-born Americans English speakers of spoken English from similarly high level of education take place to the research to show the validity of the research. In the research, a lengthy interview with each of the subjects in the study was tape recorded. Because Patkowski wanted to remove the possibility that the resu lts would be affected, he did not ask rates to judge the tape-recorded interviews themselves. Instead, he transcribed five-minute samples from the interviews. These samples were rated by trained native-speakers judges. The judges were asked to place each speaker on a rating scale from 0, representing no knowledge of the language, to 5, representing a level of English expected form an educated native speaker. The main question in Patkowskis research was: Will there be a difference between learners who began to learn English before puberty and those who began learning later? However, in the light of some of the issues discussed above, he also compared learners on the basis of other characteristics and experiences which some people have suggested might be as good as age in predicting or explaining a learners eventual success in mastering a second language. For example, he looked at the relationship between eventual mastery and the total amount of time a speaker had been in the United States as well as the amount of formal ESL instruction each speaker had had. The findings were remarkable, because thirty-two from the thirty-three learners who start learning English before the age of 15 years old scored 4+ or the 5 level. The homogeneity of the post-puberty learners seemed that the success of learning a second language was almost inevitable. On the other hand, was a variety in the levels that the post-puberty achieved. The majority of the post-puberty learners achieved +3 level, but a wide if distribution of levels achieved. The variety of the performance of this group were look more like the performance range were expected if someone were measuring success in learning, almost in any kind of skill or knowledge Patkowskis (in Lightbown, 1999:62-63) first question, Will there be a difference between learners who began to learn English before puberty and those who began learning English later?, was answered with a very resounding yes. Thus Patkowski found that the age of acquisition is very important factor for the development of native-like m astery of a second language and that does not only affect the accent. The experience and the research showed that native-like mastery of spoken language is difficult to achieve by older learners. Also, the ability to distinguish grammatical and ungrammatical sentences in a second language seems that is also affected by the age factor. However, according to Dornyei (2009:242) learners who are young enough in the critical period are still failing to master the L2 to a native like level. And, on the other hand are adult learners whose AoA is late, for example learners in their twenties, that has to be after the offset of the Critical Period and they succeed in acquiring native like proficiency. Also, there are evidences against the Critical Period hypothesis, an example that provided by Flege (2006 in Dornyei, 2009:242) are young learners of L2 whose L1 influence the pronunciation and it could still be detected after a long period in the host environment. And in another investigation that took place in 2007 by Jia and Fuse is that none of the ten immigrant children whose development followed by five year period in the USA manage to master the regular past tense -ed suffix at a minimum of 80% accuracy level, even thought the youngest children were 5 to 6 years old in the arrival and when the participated in mainstream schooling with additional English teaching. Birdsong (2006 in Dornyei, 2009:243) point out that few studies that have identified in early starter L2 learners that they should achieved native like proficiency but they do not as the Critical period defeating, native like adult L2 learners has received more attention in the literature. Common figures of post pubertal learners who reach a native like level range between 5 to 10% of learners in naturalistic environments. However there are two important points that adults can also do it. First, Birdsong (2007 in Dornyei, 2009:244) observed in his study that the late learners can success in phonetic training and also are having highly motivated to improve L2 pronunciation. Second, it appears that if you dig deep enough you can find chinks in the L2 armour, or even the most successful L2 adult learner. There various ways of accessing the native-like speaker judgment of L2 pronunciation, oral and written production tasks, even grammaticality judgements in more sophisticated probes such as examining subtle phonetic differences in voice onset time or intonation contour. It seems that even if standard measures identify someone to belong within the native-speaking range obtained of performance-usually within two standard deviations of the mean rating obtained for a native-speaking norm group- more elaborate techniques can still detect subtle deviations from the native norm. To conclude, there are many beliefs if age affects second language acquisition, if younger learners or older learners are better, if younger learners or older learners can achieve a native like language and if there is a critical period. In my opinion, learning a second language in younger age is more effective because is easier to save or remember new things, however if you are older learner there is a benefit to be able to practise the second language. And for my personal experience practising your second language and use the second language is how you learn it, instead of just learning a second language only in school context, through books, exercises, etc. In the second part of the native like proficiency I do not believe that the age matters but it matters from the person. Some people are more motivated to achieve a native like proficiency and they will try more, but other they just want to speak a second language and be able to understand them, nothing else. And for the third p art, if there is a critical period, I will agree as they say the children are like sponge, I will also agree with the part that says there is a time you stop learning as I believe in some point in your life you cannot handle new things, new words or new grammar but it happen in different stages for every person.
The Impact of the Industrial Revolution on the Life and Health of the British People Trade and industry changed dramatically during the Victorian period. The invention of new machines and the growth of factories affected the working lives of many people. The invention of steam power meant that many jobs could now be done by machines and steam powered machines meant that more goods could be made and much faster than before, when they were made by hand. When manufacturers realised this, they put their machines into huge factories so that all the work could be done in one place. Coal was needed to help make steam to power the machines. Many Victorian factories were built near coalmines to make it easier to get the coal to the factory. The coal mining industry grew. Many workers were needed to keep the new machines running in the factories and more workers were needed to work in the coalmines. Huge industrial towns grew around the factories as people moved to factory areas to look for work. In 1800, 75000 people lived in Manchester. By 1850, more than 300 000 people lived there. This made more goods for sale at home and abroad. The revolution had many impacts on Victorian life and many people benefited from industrialization but many people did not. For most people the Industrial Revolution was a good thing. Farm workers now had machines to help them and owners of the new factories and mills were making lots of money from the goods, made in their factories, being exported and sold. New inventions such as the telegraph and the typewriter created different kinds of jobs. However, for many people, life was made much more difficult. Factory workers had no rights and had to work long hours in dreadful conditions for a very low pay. The new machines were often not very safe and the workers' lives were at risk when they were running them. Factory owners exploited their workers, especially women and children. But people were desperate for work and those without jobs were not
Monday, August 19, 2019
Athletic Trainer An athletic trainer seeking employment in today's job market is likely to encounter many problems and obstacles along the way. The need for higher education greatly affects the prospect for the athletic trainer with only the baccaulereate degree. Those with this degree are better suited to seek employment in the rehabilitative therapy clinic setting. Many of these clinics have contracts with the local high schools or university thus allowing for more employees and allowing these entry level positions. Clinics also tebd to employ the student trainers who also have a tendency to move on after their education. With third party payees coming more into this field there should be an increase in the job availability for the athletic trainer in the clinical setting. There are also many openings for trainers in the high school level. The down side to this area of work is that this position is not generally based on the care and concern for the health and well being of the student athlete but is contingent on the budget aspect. The most dismal field for an athletic trainer seeking employment is in the college level. Athletic trainers most certainly need advanced degrees as well as certification of the National Athletic Trainers Association. Most Athletic trainers in this level have accepted employment while in college or attending that particular university. The college level for the athletic trainer position has not increased over the past few years- due impart to the hiring of the student trainers leaving no openings for the athletic trainer who is seeking full time employment. Obviously there is a definite need for advanced degrees in todays society, if one is seeking employment as an athletic trainer due to the fact that there is a very limited job field and openings are few and far between. In order to be fully prepared for the position of athletic trainer in todays sports related society, the potential trainer needs to obtain the minimum of a baccalaureate degree with a designated course of study. They need to have studied thoroughly anatomy and physiology, physiology of exercise, rehabilitation, kineseiology, psychology, injury evaluation and also emergency care procedures and techniques. Before meeting the requirements to become eligible to test for the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) a potential trainer needs a minumum of 800 clinical hours of experience or 1500 hours if not enrolled in an accredited athletic training education program. The NATA also requires continuing education units for a certified trainer to remain certified through them. The steps to obtaining a career in the field of athletic training are fairly simple.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
To Deny Competition is to Deny Life I can remember in fourth grade having an Easter egg hunt at school and having the teacher tell us that we could pick up only three eggs, and then we were to stop. Truth be told, that rule was probably in place for people like me who were so incredibly slow that the other kids would have gotten all the eggs before I even got there, but that didn't matter. I can still remember how stupid I thought it was and how it took the whole point out of the experience. Or how about when we had an art "competition" and half the class got first place ribbons and everyone else got second place ribbons. I had even less art skills than speed at that time and it still annoyed me. What was the prize worth if it was easily attained? Why were they trying to fool me in order to make me feel good about myself? Why were they afraid of real competition? I have been a fierce competitor all my life. I believe I owe most of the credit to having two older brothers who are somewhat close in age. I remember shooting baskets and knowing full well that the only way I was going to shoot the ball was if I managed to get the ball away from my much taller and bigger brothers. If I wanted to play with them at all, I had to learn some way of bridging that natural gap, and it instilled in me a competitive spirit that has been carried with me, further developed, and found to be essential throughout many aspects of my life. Humans are naturally competitive beings. If we weren't, we wouldn't still be around on this planet. One of the greatest and healthiest forms of competition is found in sports. The fact that sports are still thriving also points to our need for competition, for they are an outlet for our ... ... of life. If people can't see this, then it is easy to understand how they can't see the true beauty of competition. Competition is an essential part of growing up. It mirrors life almost to perfection while allowing it to be a game. To deny competition is to deny that life will present us with struggles. It is to pretend that this world will not offer obstacles to be overcome. To fear the pain of failure for either yourself or anyone else is to misunderstand the importance of challenges to create purpose. It is to misunderstand the balance of life. A hollow victory is no victory at all. So I say give me competition. I'll strive to do and be my best and I'll take my chances and if I fall short then so be it, for that's reality. Allow me to hold in balance the chance of failure and the hope of success, for it is in these moments that I can dare to be alive.